Introductory Psychology 1010 6.0 Section A Prof S. Murtha

Practice Test (Chapters 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)

Multiple Choice

Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. The answers are listed on the last page.

1. A theory that can account for the fact that people suffering from pain sometimes report pain relief from a sugar pill placebo is

a. gate-control theory

b. sensory adaptation theory

c. perceptual constancy theory

d. cognitive control theory

2. One of the notable features of LTM is that it is organized according to a clustering principle, which means

a. grouping items in LTM that occurred close together in time

b. the tendency to remember related items in groups or categories

c. grouping words that look alike in LTM

d. making a network of items in LTM

3. When researchers have attempted to demonstrate subliminal perception effects in the real world, they have typically found that

a. such effects are substantial and a potential cause for public concern

b. people are much more likely to be influenced by "positive" subliminal stimuli (e.g., self-help tapes) than "negative" ones (e.g., subliminal advertising)

c. such effects are so weak as to be of little, if any, practical importance

d. people are much more likely to be influenced by "negative" subliminal stimuli than positive" ones

  1. Nathan is watching the cumulative recorder that is connected to a box where a rat is pressing a lever to receive food reinforcement. The slope of the line is becoming flatter and flatter over time. Based on this output, Nathan can conclude that the rat's response rate
  2. a. is increasing over time

    b. will soon show spontaneous recovery

    c. is decreasing over time

    d. is caused by inadequate stimulus generalization

  3. Mark is listening as his roommate lists 14 things that they need to buy for their apartment before the end of the week. Based on George Miller's research into the capacity of short-term memory, if Mark doesn't write the items down as he hears them, he is most likely to remember

a. less than 5 of the items from the list

b. approximately 10 to 12 items from the list

c. the entire list

d. between 5 and 9 items from the list

6. You are at a daycare center and you hear three 12-month-old babies babbling; each baby from a different racial/ethnic background (Asian, Hispanic, and Caucasian). The babbling of each of these infants

a. will sound very similar, because maturation is the major determinant of language acquisition during the first year

b. will consist mainly of vowel sounds, because consonant sounds don't usually emerge until 14 months of age

c. will consist mainly of two-word phrases (telegraphic speech)

d. will sound very different, with each child's babbles sounding quite similar to the parents' native language

7. Dr. Sciorro believes that because the majority of children acquire language without any effort, there must be a biological mechanism that facilitates language learning. Dr. Sciorro's views of language development most closely mirror those of

a. Noam Chomsky

b. Herbert Simon

c. B. F. Skinner

d. Benjamin Whorf

8. Mrs. Bondle seldom corrects her 4-year-old's grammatical errors, such as "Her drinked my milk." However, she is careful to correct factual errors, such as "Tiger ate his milk." Assuming Mrs. Bondle's child develops normal language skills, her pattern of feedback would be inconsistent with

a. the behavioral view of language development

b. the nativist view of language development

c. all major theories of language development

d. the transformational theory of language development

9. Kara has just fallen asleep and immediately slips into REM. Kara has probably experienced or undergone

a. sleep deprivation

b. alcohol overdose

c. NREM rebound

d. biofeedback training

10. The structure that controls the size of the pupil is the

a. lens

b. iris

c. ciliary muscle

d. vitreous humor

11. Pavlov became interested in conditioning when he observed laboratory dogs

a. salivating right before food was placed in their mouths

b. failing to salivate when food was placed in their mouths

c. salivating only when food was placed in their mouths

d. salivating right after they had swallowed food

12. Cassie asked her father for a candy bar at the grocery store, and her father bought her the candy bar. If Cassie asks for more candy bars in the future, the candy bar has acted as

a. a discriminative stimulus

b. a reinforcer

c. a conditioned response

d. a conditioned stimulus

13. Juan and Karletta were walking one night when they heard a car backfire. Juan was convinced the sound came from directly in front of them, and Karletta was convinced the sound came from directly behind them. One reason they might have difficulty localizing the sound is

a. the sound waves would have arrived at both ears at the same instant

b. we are able to judge distance better than direction for sounds

c. sound localization is more difficult in the dark

d. only speech sounds can be accurately localized

14. A student's organized set of expectations about how to study for and take an exam is an example of a

a. script

b. cluster

c. conceptual hierarchy

d. semantic network

15. Attempting possible solutions to a problem sequentially, then discarding the ones that don't work until you find one that does, is called the method of problem solving.

a. working backward

b. heuristic

c. algorithmic

      d. trial-and-error

16. Evidence from research studies investigating bilingualism suggest that

a. bilinguals score higher than monolinguals in analytical reasoning and metalinguistic, awareness

b. bilingualism has a significant negative effect on overall language development

c. bilinguals are faster than monolinguals in language-processing speed

d. bilinguals score lower than monolinguals in selective attention and cognitive flexibility

17. Overextension occurs when

a. a word is incorrectly used to describe a wider set of objects or actions than it applies to

b. a word is incorrectly used to describe a narrower set of objects or actions than it applies to

c. the child's vocabulary has become overly large

d. a child uses a single word to signify an entire phrase or sentence

18. Loreen has a bad case of vertigo. She feels like the room is spinning, and she has trouble keeping her balance. It is possible that this sense of disequilibrium is a result of excess activity in neurons originating in the

a. semicircular canals

b. periaqueductal gray

c. olfactory bulb

d. parvocellular system

19. The amplitude of sound waves is measured in _______; the frequency of sound waves is measured in ________.

a. hertz; wavelengths

b. decibels; hertz

c. centimeters; nanometers

d. wavelengths; hertz

20. Gabriella was looking for shelter from the sudden cloud burst, and at first she had difficulty judging whether the old barn or the farmhouse was closer. However, when she noticed that the barn partially obscured the corner of the house she headed for the barn. She was able to judge which building was closer based on

a. texture gradient

b. interposition

c. relative size

d. linear perspective

21. Which of the following statements regarding the repressed memories of childhood abuse is not accurate?

a. Some accused parents have argued that their children's recollections are false memories created by therapists.

b. Many clinical psychologists accept recovered memories of abuse at face value.

c. Many psychologists involved in research on memory have expressed skepticism about the recent upsurge of recovered memories of abuse.

d. All of these statements are accurate.

22. Miguel used to enjoy occasionally drinking a glass of red wine, but when he drank too much red wine at a friend's party a few months ago he woke up with a terrible hangover. Since then Miguel refuses to drink any red wine. In this case, Miguel's hangover acted as

a. negative reinforcement for drinking red wine

b. a conditioned response to wine drinking

c. punishment for drinking red wine

d. a secondary reinforcer for attending parties

23. Imagine that a race of extraterrestrials came to earth. These extraterrestrials quickly learned to use Earth words to convey meaningful messages, but they never created new combinations of words or learned how to use rules to create meaningful sentences. Their communications would

a. not be generative or structured, but would be symbolic and semantic

b. lack all the elements of language

c. not be symbolic or semantic, but would be generative and structured

d. have all the requirements for language

24. Karina is given a list of words to memorize, and she forms a mental image of each word on the list. Calvin is given the same list of words, and he thinks of words that rhyme with each of the words on the list. Based on the research that has focused on the process of encoding, you should expect that on a memory test

a. both Karina and Calvin will recall the same number of words

b. Karina will recall more words than Calvin

c. Calvin will recall more words than Karina

d. Karina is more likely to make "look-alike" errors in recall

25. Imagine that a mammal was discovered that had no pons in the hindbrain. You should predict that this mammal would

a. never experience NREM sleep

b. sleep for most of the day

c. never experience REM sleep

d. seldom sleep

26. Veronica had been working at Zenex Industries for 8 months when her boss asked to see her in his office. She thought he wanted to talk about a promotion so she was quite excited, but instead of giving her a promotion, the boss told Veronica she was being laid off as a result of company downsizing. Veronica could feel her heart pounding as she listened to the news. Veronica was able to get a new job, but every time her new boss asks to talk to her in private, Veronica feels a little faint. In this example, the unconditioned response is

a. the bad news from her boss at Zenex Industries

b. her new boss asking for a private meeting

c. her pounding heart when she heard she was being laid off

d. the faintness she feels when her new boss wants to talk to her in private

27. Marisa is trying to decide between two computers that are advertised at the same price. Both computers are the same in most respects; however, computer A has a 600 MHz processor and 64 MB of RAM while computer B has a slower 500 MHz processor but 128 MB of RAM. Because Marisa thinks that the speed of the processor matters more than the amount of RAM, she decides to buy computer A. In this case, Marisa has made her decision using

a. elimination by aspects

b. a compensatory decision model

c. a noncompensatory decision model

d. the representativeness heuristic

28. Dave is thrown from his motorcycle and suffers a severe blow to the head, resulting in loss of memory

for events that occurred before the accident. This is an example of

a. retrograde amnesia

b. anterograde amnesia

c. motivated forgetting

d. retroactive interference

29. You have conditioned a fear response to a 1000-Hz tone. Now the tone is paired with a green light.

Later, the green light alone elicits fear. This is an example of

a. stimulus generalization

b. response generalization

c. discriminated conditioned response

d. higher-order conditioning

30. Information that an injury has just occurred is carried to the brain via the _______ pain pathway;

information that the injury has not yet healed is carried to the brain via the _______ pain pathway.

a. fast; slow

b. fast; fast

c. slow; fast

d. slow; slow

31. The word "unchangeable" consists of

a. nine morphemes, one for each letter of the alphabet used

b. one morpheme, for the entire word

c. four morphemes, one for each syllable

d. three morphemes: "un," "change," and "able"

32. Which of the following statements regarding sensory memory is not accurate?

a. Information can be stored in sensory memory for only a fraction of a second.

b. Sensory memory is the first component of the memory system.

c. Sensory memory preserves information according to the acoustic properties of the stimulus.

d. Sensory memory can preserve information from a variety of sensory modalities (e.g.,

visual, auditory).

33. Sleep spindles, which appear against a background of mixed, mostly lower frequency EEG activity, are characteristic of

a. stage 1 sleep

b. stage 2 sleep

c. stage 4 sleep

d. REM sleep

34. You may interpret the trapezoid shape projected on your retina as a rectangular book, in which

case you are formulating a

a. Gestalt principle

b. perceptual hypothesis

c. psychophysical law

d. phenomenological principle

35. REM sleep is also known as paradoxical sleep because

a. subjects in REM sleep are deeply asleep, but are extremely easy to awaken

b. brain activity during REM sleep is similar to that observed in wide-awake subjects

c. muscular tension during REM sleep is similar to that observed in wide-awake subjects

d. the eyes are open even though the person is sleeping

36. The smallest unit of meaning in a language is

a. the phoneme

b. the word

c. the phrase

d. the morpheme

37. Josiah checks his electronic mail several times throughout the day. Some days there is mail each time he checks; sometimes several days go by with no new messages arriving. In this example, Josiah's behavior of checking his electronic mail is being reinforced on

a. a variable-interval schedule

b. a fixed-ratio schedule

c. a fixed-interval schedule

d. a variable-ratio schedule

38. The ability of people to "juggle" information in working memory in order to reason and make decisions is the________ component of working memory.

a. executive control system

b. rehearsal loop

c. visual imagery

d. schematic

39. Syntax refers to rules for

a. arranging words into phrases and sentences

b. combining phonemes to form morphemes

c. using words symbolically

d. combining morphemes into words

40. According to cognitive theories of language acquisition

a. children learn language through imitation, reinforcement, and shaping

b. language acquisition is tied to children's progress in thinking

c. children possess a built-in language acquisition device

d. thought can occur only after the child acquires language

41. Ashley is trying to create a small Christmas village on the mantle of her fireplace. She bought 3-inch high figures to put at the front of the mantle and smaller figures to put near the back. Ashley is trying to increase the impression of depth in her Christmas village through the use of

a. light and shadow

b. relative size

c. convergence

d. texture gradient

42. Which of the following statements about circadian rhythms in humans is accurate?

a. Humans generally show no indication of having circadian rhythms.

b. Cireadian rhythms are apparently a uniquely human development.

c. Circadian rhythms in humans tend to function on a 30-day cycle.

d. Circadian rhythms in humans actually appear to be regulated by several internal clocks.

43. Jeremy stops gambling five minutes after his slot machine last paid off; Jessica is still gambling, even though her slot machine hasn't paid off in over an hour. In this example, Jeremy's behavior _________ while Jessica's behavior.

a. shows low resistance to extinction; shows high resistance to extinction

b. has been classically conditioned; has been operantly conditioned

c. shows high resistance to extinction; shows low resistance to extinction

d. is controlled by conditioned stimuli; is controlled by unconditioned stimuli


44. When Jackie watches slasher movies she covers her eyes when the blood starts to splatter; when Clarice watches slasher movies she covers her eyes as soon as she hears ominous music start to play. Jackie’s response is consistent with ________ while Clarice's response is consistent with ________.

a. escape responding; avoidance responding

b. avoidance responding; escape responding

c. negative reinforcement; positive reinforcement

d. classical conditioning; operant conditioning

45. Imagine that human neurons reach a maximum firing rate of 5000 impulses per second, rather than only 1000 impulses per second. Using the volley principle, this would mean that

a. place theory could explain the full range of human pitch perception

b. neither frequency theory nor place theory could fully explain human pitch perception

c. frequency theory could explain the full range of human pitch perception

d. both place theory and frequency theory would be necessary to fully explain human pitch perception

46. Which of the following areas of the brain is associated with the severe memory impairment that occurs in Alzheimer's disease?

a. limbic system

b. hippocampal region

c. sympathetic nervous system

d. Broca's area

47. Adam has just consumed a substance that provides him with increased alertness and energy, along with reduced fatigue. However, it also makes him more talkative, increases his blood pressure, reduces his appetite, and makes him restless. Adam has likely ingested

a. THC

b. an amphetamine

c. LSD

d. a sedative

48. Which of the following statements is true?

a. Although telegraphic speech is not unique to the English language, it is not a cross-culturally, universal aspect of language development.

b. The emergence of telegraphic speech is unique to the English language.

c. The emergence of telegraphic speech is a cross-culturally, universal aspect of language development.

d. Telegraphic speech is more prevalent in Western cultures than in non-Western cultures.

49. Which of the following instruments is not usually used to monitor sleep in the laboratory?

a. EEG

b. EMG

c. PET

d. EOG

50. Claudia wants to send a fragile vase to her parents for their anniversary, but she can't find any appropriate packing material in her house. She decides to pop some popcorn and use that to pack around the vase. In this case, Claudia has

a. demonstrated functional fixedness in solving her problem

b. effectively utilized the availability heuristic in solving her problem

c. overcome functional fixedness in solving her problem

d. utilized an elimination-by-aspects strategy to solve her problem

51. LeAnn had her purse snatched as she walked out to her car. The police who are investigating the crime ask LeAnn to try to pick the purse snatcher out of a line-up of eight suspects. The police are basically using

a. a recognition task to recover information from LeAnn's memory

b. a recall task to recover information from LeAnn's memory

c. transfer-appropriate encoding to recover information from LeAnn's memory

d. a misinformation task to recover information from LeAnn's memory

52. Allen was recently traded to a new basketball team, and he is having a hard time remembering all the new plays because he keeps using the plays from his former team. Allen's problems illustrate the effects of

a. retroactive interference

b. state-dependent forgetting

c. proactive interference

d. memory reconstruction

53. Mike broke his nose in a recent boxing match. The doctors packed his nose and told him he will need to breathe through his mouth for the next 10 to 14 days. Mike is likely to find that while his nose is packed,

a. food will taste better because his sense of taste will be temporarily enhanced to compensate for his missing sense of smell

b. he will have problems with his equilibrium and balance

c. food will have little taste because much of a food's flavor depends on our sense of smell

d. he will have trouble detecting motion because the main pathway to his superior colliculus will be blocked


Answers: 1a, 2b, 3c, 4c, 5d, 6d, 7a, 8a, 9a, 10b, 11a, 12b, 13a, 14a, 15d, 16a, 17a, 18a, 19b, 20b, 21d, 22c, 23a, 24b, 25c, 26c, 27b, 28a, 29d, 30a, 31d, 32c, 33b, 34b, 35b, 36d, 37a, 38a, 39a, 40b, 41b, 42d, 43a, 44a, 45c, 46a, 47b, 48a, 49c, 50c, 51a, 52c, 53c